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Evidence from Resource 4 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Endsley, M.R. & Strauch, B. (1997). Automation and situation awareness: The accident at Cali, Columbia. In R.S. Jensen & L. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 877-881. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing levels of cockpit automation affect the amount of the time pilots spend performing various activities. Three activities—looking outside of the cockpit, hand flying, andcommunicating—were of particular interest. Our data (reported in Damos, John, and Lyall, in press) concerning looking outside the cockpit support Wiener’s (1993) concerns; pilots of automated aircraft spend more time heads down than pilots of traditional aircraft during approach (below 10,000 ft). Our data, however, indicate that the increase in heads down time only occurs during approach to landings at airports with high traffic density. Similarly, our results show a decrease in hand flying with increased levels of automation and agree with the survey results of McClumpha et al. (1991). However, our results do not support completely those of Costley et al. (1989) and Veinott and Irwin (1993) about the effects of increasing levels of automation on communication. Our analyses only showed a significant effect of automation on flightrelated communication. Additionally, although our analyses showed a significant effect of automation, the differences between the aircraft are relatively small and may have few operational implications."
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +5
    Aircraft: 737/200, 737/300
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "Perhaps the most interesting findings concern the effect of automation on the time spent reading the enroute charts and approach plates. Arguably, the EFIS provides more easily assimilated positional information that should decrease the amount of time needed to study charts and plates. Our data provide limited evidence that EFIS decreased the proportion of time spent reading enroute charts and no evidence that it decreased the amount of time spent studying approach plates."
    Issue: automation may demand attention (Issue #102) See Issue details
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: 737/200, 737/300
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing levels of cockpit automation affect the amount of the time pilots spend performing various activities. Three activities—looking outside of the cockpit, hand flying, andcommunicating—were of particular interest. Our data (reported in Damos, John, and Lyall, in press) concerning looking outside the cockpit support Wiener’s (1993) concerns; pilots of automated aircraft spend more time heads down than pilots of traditional aircraft during approach (below 10,000 ft). Our data, however, indicate that the increase in heads down time only occurs during approach to landings at airports with high traffic density. Similarly, our results show a decrease in hand flying with increased levels of automation and agree with the survey results of McClumpha et al. (1991). However, our results do not support completely those of Costley et al. (1989) and Veinott and Irwin (1993) about the effects of increasing levels of automation on communication. Our analyses only showed a significant effect of automation on flightrelated communication. Additionally, although our analyses showed a significant effect of automation, the differences between the aircraft are relatively small and may have few operational implications."
    Issue: inter-pilot communication may be reduced (Issue #139) See Issue details
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: 737/200, 737/300
    Equipment: automation

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing levels of cockpit automation affect the amount of the time pilots spend performing various activities. Three activities—looking outside of the cockpit, hand flying, andcommunicating—were of particular interest. Our data (reported in Damos, John, and Lyall, in press) concerning looking outside the cockpit support Wiener’s (1993) concerns; pilots of automated aircraft spend more time heads down than pilots of traditional aircraft during approach (below 10,000 ft). Our data, however, indicate that the increase in heads down time only occurs during approach to landings at airports with high traffic density. Similarly, our results show a decrease in hand flying with increased levels of automation and agree with the survey results of McClumpha et al. (1991). However, our results do not support completely those of Costley et al. (1989) and Veinott and Irwin (1993) about the effects of increasing levels of automation on communication. Our analyses only showed a significant effect of automation on flightrelated communication. Additionally, although our analyses showed a significant effect of automation, the differences between the aircraft are relatively small and may have few operational implications."
    Issue: automation may demand attention (Issue #102) See Issue details
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: 737/200, 737/300
    Equipment: automation
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